Gnevny class were a group of 29 destroyers built for the Soviet Navy in the late
1930s. They are sometimes known as the Gremyashchiy class and the official Soviet
designation was Project 7. These ships fought in World War II.
had an overall length of 112.8 meters, a beam of 10.2 meters, and a draft of 4.8
meters at deep load. The ships were significantly overweight, almost 200 metric
tons heavier than designed, displacing 1612 metric tons at standard load and 2039
metric tons at deep load. Their crew numbered 197 officers and sailors in peacetime
and 236 in wartime.
The ships were powered by two geared steam turbine sets,
each driving a single three-bladed 3.18-meter propeller using steam provided by
three water-tube boilers. The turbines, rated at 48,000 shp (36,000 kW), were
intended to give the ships a speed of 37 knots.
The Gnevny-class ships mounted
four 130-millimeter B-13 guns in two pairs of superfiring single mounts fore and
aft of the superstructure. Each gun was provided with 150 rounds. The manually
operated mounts had an elevation range between -5° to +45° and had a rate
of fire of 6-10 rounds per minute. They fired a 33.4-kilogram shell at a muzzle
velocity of 870 m/s, which gave them a range of 25,597 meters. Anti-aircraft defense
was provided by two 55-caliber 76.2-millimeter 34-K AA guns and two 46-caliber
45-millimeter 21-K AA guns, all in single mounts as well as a pair of 12.7-millimeter
DK or DShK machine guns. The ships were equipped with six 533 mm torpedo tubes
in two rotating triple mounts amidships; each tube was provided with a reload.
The ships could also carry a maximum of either 60 or 95 mines and 25 depth charges.
Destroyer Bditelny laid down on 23 August 1936 at the Shipyard named after
61 kommunara, Nikolaev (yard No.1070), launched on 29 June 1937, commissioned
on 22 October 1939 and was assigned to the Black Sea Fleet.
When the Germans
invaded the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, Bditelny was assigned to the 2nd Destroyer
Division and was refitting in Nikolayev. The refit was completed by 10 July when
the ship steamed for Sevastopol, but she had to return for repairs. The same thing
happened eight days later. While covering the transfer of incomplete ships from
Nikolayev to Sevastopol on 13 August, Bditelny was damaged when she accidentally
collided with the freighter SS Kaments-Podolsk. After repairs were completed,
the ship provided gunfire support for the defenders of Odessa on 26-27 August.
On 24 September, she ran aground, damaging her bow, and repairs were completed
the following month. Bditelny helped to evacuate cut-off Soviet troops from pockets
along the Black Sea coast to Sevastopol in early November. On 9 November, she
ran aground off the Tuzla Spit, damaging her propellers and flooding her middle
boiler room. The ship was pulled off and was under repair at Tuapse until mid-February
On 26 February, Bditelny, together with her sister Boyky and the leader
Kharkov, bombarded German positions at Feodosia, expending 60 rounds from her
main guns. The ship conducted further gunfire support missions in the area on
28 February and 3, 11 and 14 March. The following month, she began transporting
supplies and troops to and from besieged Sevastopol and providing gunfire support.
Between 16 April and 13 June, Bditelny fired 535 shells from her main guns. On
17 April, the ship rescued 143 survivors from the sunken transport SS Svaneti
and she was briefly refitted the following month. After the destroyer leader Tashkent
was crippled by German aircraft on 26 June, Bditelny was one of the ships sent
to assist her and towed Tashkent to Novorossiysk for repairs.
air raid on Novorossiysk by I. Gruppe (First Group) of Kampfgeschwader 76 (Bomber
Wing 76) on 2 July, bomb splinters caused torpedoes in her forward mount to detonate,
which set off her aft magazines, sinking the ship. Her wreck was salvaged in pieces
and scrapped in 1948-1952.
| Displacement (tons):|
2640 nmi (20 knots)|
|Propulsion:||2 geared steam
turbines, 48,000 shp (36,000 kW), 3 water-tube boilers, 2 shafts|
4x1 130-mm guns
2x1 76,2-mm AA guns
2x1 45-mm AA guns
2x1 12,7-mm AA machineguns
533 mm torpedo tubes
25 depth charges
(15 officers, 44 warrant officers) |